A history of puritanism in england and america in the seventeenth century

Puritanism first emerged as a distinct movement in a controversy over clerical vestments and liturgical practices during the reign of Elizabeth. Immediately following the Elizabethan Settlement, Protestant clergy could, within reason, choose what to wear while leading worship.

A history of puritanism in england and america in the seventeenth century

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Puritanism first emerged as a distinct movement in a controversy over clerical vestments and liturgical practices during the reign of Elizabeth. Immediately following the Elizabethan Settlement, Protestant clergy could, within reason, choose what to wear while leading worship.

Many preachers took this opportunity… Theology Puritanism may be defined primarily by the intensity of the religious experience that it fostered. Calvinist theology and polity proved to be major influences in the formation of Puritan teachings. Still, because of the importance of preaching, the Puritans placed a premium on a learned ministry.

During the reign of Queen Mary —58however, England returned to Roman Catholicism, and many Protestants were forced into exile. The Book of MartyrsPage from the eighth edition of The Book of Martyrs, by John Foxe, woodcut depicting top zealous reformers stripping a church of its Roman Catholic furnishings and bottom a Protestant church interior with a baptismal font and a communion table set with a cup and paten, published in London, ; in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

History of Puritanism

Photograph by Veronika Brazdova. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Museum no. W9 Many of these Puritans—as they came to be known during a controversy over vestments in the s—sought parliamentary support for an effort to institute a presbyterian form of polity for the Church of England.

Both groups, but especially the Separatistswere repressed by the establishment. Denied the opportunity to reform the established churchEnglish Puritanism turned to preaching, pamphlets, and a variety of experiments in religious expression and in social behaviour and organization.

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Its successful growth also owed much to patrons among the nobility and in Parliament and its control of colleges and professorships at Oxford and Cambridge. Some were deprived of their positions; others got by with minimal conformity; and still others, who could not accept compromise, fled England.

The pressure for conformity increased under Charles I —49 and his archbishop, William Laud. Nevertheless, the Puritan spirit continued to spread, and when civil war broke out between Parliament and Charles in the s, Puritans seized the opportunity to urge Parliament and the nation to renew its covenant with God.

Parliament called together a body of clergy to advise it on the government of the church, but this body—the Westminster Assembly —was so badly divided that it failed to achieve reform of church government and discipline.

Meanwhile, the New Model Armywhich had defeated the royalist forces, feared that the Assembly and Parliament would reach a compromise with King Charles that would destroy their gains for Puritanism, so it seized power and turned it over to its hero, Oliver Cromwell.

A number of radical Puritan groups appeared, including the Levelersthe Diggersthe Fifth Monarchy Menand the Quakers the only one of lasting significance.

Jamestown Founded in 1607

GangraenaAn introduction to Gangraena by Thomas Edwards, a Puritan clergyman who was sharply critical of those whose theological positions differed from his own.

Thus, English Puritanism entered a period known as the Great Persecution.

A history of puritanism in england and america in the seventeenth century

In the American colonies The Puritan ideal of realizing the Holy Commonwealth by the establishment of a covenanted community was carried to the American colony of Virginia by Thomas Dale, but the greatest opportunity came in New England.

PuritansPuritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony walk to church in the snow.American Puritanism. Early in the 17th century some Puritan groups separated from the Church of England. Among these were the Pilgrims, who in founded Plymouth Colony.

Ten years later, under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place. The "impact of Puritanism" might refer to the continuing effect that the Protestant denominations, descended from the seventeenth-century Puritans, had on American society and literature.

We can also speak of the manner in which nineteenth-century Americans' understanding of their history, of the actions of their Protestant forefathers .

In , England created the Dominion of New England, a new government consolidation that relocated part of Parliament to America to represent colonists more effectively.

The individual, therefore, must in all things be guided by the inward monitor.

A history of puritanism in england and america in the seventeenth century

Puritanism is, in short, the principle of individualism carried to its highest pitch in matters of religion. But Puritanism in the seventeenth century, when it searched the Scriptures, turned to the Old Testament rather than the New.

The Puritans were a group of people loosely defined through their shared adherence to the reformed theological tradition, largely following the work of John Calvin.

Beginning in the 16th century, the Puritan movement took root in specific regional locales throughout Germany, Scotland, the Low Countries, and England.

Following Queen Elizabeth’s . The literature on Puritans, particularly biographical literature on individual Puritan ministers, was already voluminous in the 17th century and, indeed, the interests of Puritans in the narratives of early life and conversions made the recording of the internal lives important to them.

Puritanism and Predestination, Divining America, TeacherServe®, National Humanities Center