Following Viking raids and settlement in the ninth century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex emerged as the dominant English kingdom. Alfred the Great secured Wessex, achieved dominance over western Merciaand assumed the title "King of the English". The 11th century saw England become more stable, despite a number of wars with the Danes, which resulted in a Danish monarchy for one generation. The new monarch continued the centralisation of power begun in the Anglo-Saxon period, while the Feudal System continued to develop.
In some cases, this involved forced-relocation and even genocide.
One of the most important of these cohabitation approaches can be found in the Royal Proclamation ofwhich was issued by King George III of Britain. Also included was a basic framework for relations with North American Aboriginals. Moreover, the Royal Proclamation implemented a process by which Aboriginal lands could be purchased for British settlement and development.
An Aboriginal group could only transfer lands to the British Crown, not to European settlers or other colonial officials.
By instituting an Aboriginal right to land and a formal nation-to-nation land transfer process, the Royal Proclamation recognized Aboriginal groups in North America as autonomous and self-governing actors Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginals were not simply private individuals, akin to other British subjects.
This is not to suggest a relationship of complete autonomy and equality between Aboriginals and the Crown. The Royal Proclamation recognized Aboriginals as groups living under Crown protection on lands within British dominions and territories. Nevertheless, the Crown could not simply appropriate Aboriginal lands whenever and however it saw fit.
Also central to the Royal Proclamation was the concern that Aboriginals were being exploited in their dealings with European settlers and colonial officials. In this context, the Royal Proclamation recognized a duty on the part of the Crown to act as a protector of Aboriginal peoples in their relations with colonial society.
By the mids, however, Britain began to transfer this responsibility to the Canadian colonies themselves.
The first of these was An Act for the Better Protection of the Lands and Property of Indians in Lower Canada and An Act for the protection of Indians in Upper Canada from imposition, and the property occupied or enjoyed by them from trespass and injury, which were passed by the Province of Canada then a British colony in While the definition was broadly construed, it is important to note that it assumed for the government the responsibility for deciding who was an Aboriginal.
In other words, Aboriginal groups themselves were not given the power to define their own communities. Commonly referred to as the Gradual Civilization Act, this statute was the first to introduce the concept of enfranchisement or the process by which Aboriginals lost their Indian status and became full British subjects.
In introducing the Act, the colonial government viewed enfranchisement as a privilege for Aboriginals, by which they could gain their freedom from the protected Indian status and gain the rights of full colonial citizenship, such as the right to vote.
Under the Act, only Aboriginal men could seek enfranchisement. In order to do so, they had to be over the age of 21, able to read and write in either English or French, be reasonably well educated, free of debt, and of good moral character as determined by a commission of non-Aboriginal examiners Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Once enfranchised, the person was entitled to receive up to 50 acres of land from the reserve on which they lived and a per capita share of treaty annuities and other band monies.
Enfranchisement was to be fully voluntary by the man seeking it. An important element of this Act was the centralization of control over Aboriginal affairs for the colony. The Act created the office of the Chief Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and transferred all authority for Aboriginals and their lands in the Province of Canada to this single official.
Moreover, the Chief Superintendent was given very broad discretionary powers over reserve Aboriginals. This centralization continued inwhen the Province of Canada was united with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to create the new nation of the Dominion of Canada.
Inthe Government of Canada passed An Act for the gradual enfranchisement of Indians, the better management of Indian affairs, and to extend the provisions of the Act 31st Victoria.
This Act is significant in that it was the first to introduce the notion of self-government for Aboriginals on reserves. Under the Act, Aboriginal tribes or bands were permitted to elect chiefs and band councils for the purpose of general administration on reserves.
These elected officials were granted limited bylaw powers, and were elected to terms of three years. It is important to note many Aboriginal groups did not engage in democratic practices at the time. Consequently, the Act granted the government the power to impose democratic institutions on them, regardless of what Aboriginal groups desired.
In addition to a mechanism for Aboriginal self-government, the Act included other key provisions. It prohibited the sale of alcohol to Aboriginals, on the paternalistic grounds of protecting Aboriginals from themselves.
Furthermore, the Act instituted a compulsory enfranchisement provision. Under the Act, however, Aboriginal women who married non-Aboriginal men automatically lost their Indian status, regardless of whether or not they so desired it.
Moreover, any children resulting from the marriage would also be denied Indian status. The following provides an overview of the underlying philosophy and key provisions of the Indian Act, In this context, Aboriginals were viewed as children or wards of the state, to which the government had a paternalistic duty to protect and civilize.
The Act also continued the practice of imposing a definition of Indian status on Aboriginal groups, thus ensuring that it was the Canadian government, and not Aboriginal groups themselves, that had the power to decide who was, and who was not, Aboriginal.
However, the Act did place a stronger emphasis on male lineage in its definition of Indian status.1.
Harold Wilensky put it baldly and succinctly: "Economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development." Harold Wilensky, The Welfare State and Equality (Berkeley: University of California Press, ), p.
2. Thus, Flora and Alber find no correlation between levels of industrialization and social insurance programs of 12 European nations between the s and the s. Civilization and Assimilation: The First Indian Act. Overview of the first Indian Act, passed in The Government of Canada, now an independent nation, introduced the first Indian Act in , with the purpose of consolidating all prior federal legislation regarding Aboriginals into one single piece of legislation.
The following provides an overview of . Canadian Heritage and its portfolio organizations play a vital role in the cultural, civic and economic life of Canadians. Arts, culture and heritage represent $ billion in the Canadian economy and more than , jobs in sectors such as film and video, broadcasting, music, publishing.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States of America under the Constitution of.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas barnweddingvt.com current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake .
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas barnweddingvt.com current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February The .