He said that the world crisis was from humanity losing the ethical idea of civilization, "the sum total of all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the progress of all progress". The abstract noun "civilization", meaning "civilized condition", came in the s, again from French. The first known use in French is inby Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeauand the first use in English is attributed to Adam Fergusonwho in his Essay on the History of Civil Society wrote, "Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilisation".
Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa By Sydella Blatch Despite suffering through the horrific system of slavery, sharecropping and the Jim Crow era, early African-Americans made countless contributions to science and technology 1.
This lineage and culture of achievement, though, emerged at least 40, years ago in Africa. Unfortunately, few of us are aware of these accomplishments, as the history of Africa, beyond ancient Egypt, is seldom publicized.
Sadly, the vast majority of discussions on the origins of science include only the Greeks, Romans and other whites. But in fact most of their discoveries came thousands of years after African developments. While the remarkable black civilization in Egypt remains alluring, there was sophistication and impressive inventions throughout ancient sub-Saharan Africa as well.
There are just a handful of scholars in this area. Here, I attempt to send an electrical impulse to this long-deadened nerve. I can only fly by this vast plane of achievements. Despite this, it still should be evident that the ancient people of Africa, like so many other ancients of the world, definitely had their genius.
Math Surely only a few of us know that many modern high-school-level concepts in mathematics first were developed in Africa, as was the first method of counting. More than 35, years ago, Egyptians scripted textbooks about math that included division and multiplication of fractions and geometric formulas to calculate the area and volume of shapes 3.
Distances and angles were calculated, algebraic equations were solved and mathematically based predictions were made of the size of floods of the Nile. Eight thousand years ago, people in present-day Zaire developed their own numeration system, as did Yoruba people in what is now Nigeria.
The Yoruba system was based on units of 20 instead of 10 and required an impressive amount of subtraction to identify different numbers. Scholars have lauded this system, as it required much abstract reasoning 4.
Astronomy Several ancient African cultures birthed discoveries in astronomy. Many of these are foundations on which we still rely, and some were so advanced that their mode of discovery still cannot be understood. Egyptians charted the movement of the sun and constellations and the cycles of the moon.
Clocks were made with moving water and sundial-like clocks were used 3. A structure known as the African Stonehenge in present-day Kenya constructed around B.
The Dogon people of Mali amassed a wealth of detailed astronomical observations 6. Many of their discoveries were so advanced that some modern scholars credit their discoveries instead to space aliens or unknown European travelers, even though the Dogon culture is steeped in ceremonial tradition centered on several space events.
Hundreds of years ago, they plotted orbits in this system accurately through the year 6. They knew this system contained a primary star and a secondary star now called Sirius B of immense density and not visible to the naked eye.
Metallurgy and tools Many advances in metallurgy and tool making were made across the entirety of ancient Africa.
These include steam engines, metal chisels and saws, copper and iron tools and weapons, nails, glue, carbon steel and bronze weapons and art 27.
Advances in Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda between 1, and 2, years ago surpassed those of Europeans then and were astonishing to Europeans when they learned of them. Architecture and engineering Various past African societies created sophisticated built environments.
Of course, there are the engineering feats of the Egyptians: The largest of the pyramids covers 13 acres and is made of 2. Later, in the 12th century and much farther south, there were hundreds of great cities in Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
There, massive stone complexes were the hubs of cities. One included a meter-long, 15,ton curved granite wall 9. The cities featured huge castlelike compounds with numerous rooms for specific tasks, such as iron-smithing.
In the 13th century, the empire of Mali boasted impressive cities, including Timbuktu, with grand palaces, mosques and universities 2. Medicine Many treatments we use today were employed by several ancient peoples throughout Africa. Before the European invasion of Africa, medicine in what is now Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa, to name just a few places, was more advanced than medicine in Europe.
Some of these practices were the use of plants with salicylic acid for pain as in aspirinkaolin for diarrhea as in Kaopectateand extracts that were confirmed in the 20th century to kill Gram positive bacteria 2.
Other plants used had anticancer properties, caused abortion and treated malaria — and these have been shown to be as effective as many modern-day Western treatments. Furthermore, Africans discovered ouabain, capsicum, physostigmine and reserpine.
Medical procedures performed in ancient Africa before they were performed in Europe include vaccination, autopsy, limb traction and broken bone setting, bullet removal, brain surgery, skin grafting, filling of dental cavities, installation of false teeth, what is now known as Caesarean section, anesthesia and tissue cauterization 3.
In addition, African cultures preformed surgeries under antiseptic conditions universally when this concept was only emerging in Europe 2. Navigation Most of us learn that Europeans were the first to sail to the Americas.
However, several lines of evidence suggest that ancient Africans sailed to South America and Asia hundreds of years before Europeans.Outline of History; Prehistory — Prehistory, the rise of civilization, and the ancient Middle East to c B.C.E. Prehistory to c BCE — Unit 1: Prehistory and the rise of Civilization to c B.C.E..
FC1 — Biological, Cultural, and Technological Evolution in History; FC2 — A Possible Scenario of Human Evolution; FC3 — A Possible Scenario for the Evolution of the Family and. The legend of Sisyphus begins with a man who, if we are to believe Homer, was one of the wisest and most prudent of mortals.
Nonetheless he would fall out of favor with the gods of ancient Greece.
He was taken to the kingdom of the underworld and was forced to endure one of the most pointless and excruciating punishments of ancient mythology. European Civilizations In History Essay. Print Reference this.
Disclaimer: The world therefore was still a mystery and each civilization did not know much outside their territory.
This paper is going to evaluate the changes that occurred in the world between and and the overall effect they had on the world affairs and the. Before & After School. Our BLAST Program provides recreation, enrichment, and academic opportunities, every day after school.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
Ancient Man and His First Civilizations Etruria Modern Italy. The Eurasian Invasion - the Latin's. When last we left Etruria, we were mystified by the Etruscan's policy of not helping each other when faced with a common threat.