John of Damascus a Syrian monk and presbyter19th-century Arabic icon The earliest surviving written criticisms of Islam are to be found in the writings of Christians who came under the early dominion of the Islamic Caliphate. One such Christian was John of Damascus c. The second chapter of his book, The Fount of Wisdom, titled "Concerning Heresies", presents a series of discussions between Christians and Muslims.
Thomas Kuhn Science does not proceed by patient accretion of facts but by revolutionary interpretive shifts in which one 'paradigm' replaces another. The change from one paradigm to another is not wholly justifiable or rational. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Jacques Derrida His careful analysis of language called attention to the deep paradoxes and undecidable problems implicit in texts.
This contrasts with the spoken word, with its apparent immediacy of meaning and connection to the living presence of the speaker. Through deconstruction he tries to read texts critically, displaying the self-undermining elements written down in the magin of the original text under scrutiny.
Of Grammatology, Georges Bataille Transcendence is a state of separation opposing itself to the flowing of all that is. There is not first an ego for which the object is, separated by its transcendence.
The 'I' lacks all distinctness, haemorrhaging freely into death, lost in 'immanent immensity', which is without separations or limits. Theory on Religion, Paul Feyerabend Science is much closer to myth than a scientific philosophy is prepared to admit. A new breed of intellectuals rose to power: Against Method, Science in a Free Society, No legitimation is necessary beyond expediency.
The production of knowledge is analyzed in terms of discontinuity, plurality and 'paralogy' logically unjustified conclusions. A Report on Knowledge, The idea of the unity of science should be reconsidered.
The Manifacture of Knowledge, Richard Rorty The traditional philosophical pursuit of ultimate, transcendental, foundational knowledge is not a valid or desirable enterprise. Philosophy can not justify any program of political reform.
Philosophy -like rhetorics- makes different world descriptions only look attractive. Our vocabularies can not be grounded in an appeal to 'objectivity'. The pragmatic alternative sees legitimation as 'solidarity' or culture.
Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, David Ray Griffin 'Parapsychology provides evidence against the intellectual adequacy of the late modern worldview, evidence that is particularly dramatic.
This is not to say that the case against the truth of atheistic materialism rest only, or even primarily, on the question of the genuineness of the apparent paranormal interactions investigated by parapsychology. Nevertheless, parapsychology may turn out to be of decisive importance in moving our culture from a modern to a postmodern outlook.
Great Theosophical teachings of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater. Redated from March I was a Christian recently enough to remember what it felt like to really believe the Creator of the universe talked to me, to really believe I would go to heaven and unbelievers would go to. Towards a multi- & meta-cultural Postmodern Philosophy. Prelude. Muslim scholarship Regarding the many historical influences determining the outbreak of the Renaissance, the earliest phase of humanistic modernism, at the end of Medieval Europe, one should not (as was & is usually done by Europacentrists to suggest the originality of modernism) underestimate the major role played by the masters.
A Report on KnowledgeLyotard introduced this notion into contemporary philosophical discourse, and proposed that his own commitment to this new and emergent global movement be grasped as a reaffirmation of the authentic modernism to be found in Adorno's philosophy for who the Enlightenment is the only road to social freedom, inevitably leading to totalitarianism.
Can the latter be avoided? Lyotard was a pro-modernist! Eco rightly claims postmodernism to be the avant-garde of the modernism of the 21th century, while others say that by depending too much upon a subjectivist and non-social conception of rationality, it moves towards irrationalism Habermas, Not only will it emphasise the continuities of nature, but the time-bound, cultural nature of knowledge.
Rather, it will support relative absolutism, or fragmental holism, which insists on the developing and jumping nature of scientific growth, and the fact that all propositions of truth are time- and context-sensitive.
From Modernism to Postmodernism: Jencks definition of postmodernism in Jameson, as 'double coding' is interesting.
The combination of modern techniques with 'something else' which does take into account history and which is able to communicate with its end users in a modular way is indeed typical for the postmodern approach and its entanglement with art and the religions.
The quantity of people visiting is far less important than the quality of their experience.After eighteen months of travel in Latin America, Flora looks at the sexist attitude toward women in Latino 'machismo' culture that she experienced. Successful communication between healthcare providers and their patients from different cultural backgrounds depends on developing awareness of the normative cultural values of patients and how these differ from the cultural values of most western .
After eighteen months of travel in Latin America, Flora looks at the sexist attitude toward women in Latino 'machismo' culture that she experienced. Culture of The Netherlands - history, people, clothing, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social Ma-Ni.
Faith and Reason. Traditionally, faith and reason have each been considered to be sources of justification for religious belief. Because both can purportedly serve this same epistemic function, it has been a matter of much interest to philosophers and theologians how the two are related and thus how the rational agent should treat claims derived from either source.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or .