All of these societies shared in common the fact that they were relatively homogeneous culturally. Two general conclusions emerged from this study. First, socialization practices varied markedly from society to society. Second, the socialization practices were generally similar among people of the same society.
A girl named Genie was found in the United States in When she was remembered at night, she was put to bed in a homemade straitjacket. There were no radios or televisions in the house, people spoke in hushed tones, and the only language Genie heard was an occasional obscenity from her father.
He hated noise, and if Genie made any sound her father would growl at her like a dog or beat her with a stick. As a result of her confinement, Genie could not walk and her eyes could not focus beyond the boundaries of her room.
She was malnourished, incontinent, and salivated constantly [Curtiss, ].
Despite all this, when the psychologist Susan Curtiss first met her, Genie was alert, curious, and intensely eager for human contact. When frightened or frustrated she would erupt into silent frenzies of rage--flailing about, scratching, spitting, throwing objects, but never uttering a sound.
Aside from not speaking, her lack of socialization was apparent in her behavior: She would urinate in unacceptable places, go up to someone in a store and take whatever she liked of theirs, and peer intently into the faces of strangers at close range.
Although Curtiss worked with her for several years, Genie never developed language abilities beyond those of a 4-year-old, and she ended up being placed in an institution.
The story of Genie shows the importance of socialization in human society. Socialization refers to the preparation of newcomers to become members of an existing group and to think, feel, and act in ways the group considers appropriate.
Such widely diverse situations as child rearing, teaching someone a new game, orienting a new member of an organization, preparing someone who has been in sales work to become a manager, or acquainting an immigrant with the life and culture of a new society are all instances of socialization.
Socialization is a central process in social life. Its importance has been noted by sociologists for a long time, but their image of it has shifted over the last hundred years. In the early years of American sociology, socialization was equated with civilization.
The issue was one of taming fierce individualists so they would willingly cooperate with others on common endeavors. This nature had to be shaped to conform to socially acceptable ways of behaving. As time went on, however, socialization came to be seen more and more as the end result-- that is, as internalization.
Society was seen as the primary factor responsible for how individuals learned to think and behave. This view is evident in the work of functionalist Talcott Parsons, who gave no hint that the result of socialization might be uncertain or might vary from person to person. If people failed to play their expected roles or behaved strangely, functionalists explained this in terms of incomplete or inadequate socialization.
Such people were said to be "unsocialized"--they had not yet learned what was expected of them. The trouble is, they might very well know what was expected but simply be rejecting it.
Someone who runs a red light, for example, knows perfectly well that one is not supposed to do that but is doing it anyway.
The possibility that individuals might have needs, desires, values, or behaviors different from those that society expects or demands of them was not seriously considered by functionalists.
As Parsons used the term "internalization," it referred to the tendency for individuals to accept particular values and norms and to conform to them in their conduct.
Education is the social process by which individual learns the things necessary to fit him to the social life of his society. Education is primarily deliberate learning which fits the individual for his adult role in society. As Counts and Mead phrase it, education is an induction into the learner’s culture. This conference seeks to shine a light on these issues by foregrounding recent evidence demonstrating that social aspects of schools and school systems deeply influence school improvement. Furthermore, the conference seeks to encourage vigorous debate on the practical implications of this evidence. 1 | Page SOCIALIZATION – What’s It All About? Socialization is an aspect of education, and educational benefit, far too often ignored by school districts .
Dennis Wrong deplored this view of internalization as being an "oversocialized" conception of human beings. It left no room for the "animal" or biological side of human existence, where motivational drives might conflict with the discipline of internalized social norms.
Functionalists deny the presence in humans "of motivational forces bucking against the hold that social discipline has over them" Wrong,p. Individual drives do sometimes conflict with social expectations, however. For example, a common theme in movies and TV is that of married people becoming involved in sexual relationships with persons other than their spouses.
They know they are not supposed to have an affair, but they do so anyway. Undoubtedly as a reaction to the overly determined Parsonian view of socialization, a group of interpretive sociologists has reasserted the independence of individuals.
The interpretive perspective sees socialization as an interactive process. Individuals negotiate their definitions of the situation with others. A couple, for example, may negotiate between themselves a conception of marriage that is sharply different from the view of marriage held by people in the larger society.
The interpretive view offers an "undersocialized" view of human behavior, since it tends to minimize the importance of historical social structures and the deep internalization of social values and norms Wentworth, But the innovative couple may find that their personally developed conception of marriage is challenged or undermined by friends, in-laws, legal systems, employers, or others.
Both the functionalist and the interpretive views of socialization are incomplete. Each is relevant for understanding some features, but both tend to ignore other important aspects of social life. It is useful to combine the helpful points of each approach into a more complete view of socialization.
Wentworth proposes exactly such a synthesis.Identify five agents of socialization. People hold very strong views on abortion, and many of their views stem from their religious beliefs.
Yet which aspect of religion matters the most, religious preference or religiosity? A Brief History of Education in the United States; . Formal education plays a large role in the socialization of students.
Starting with the preschool years, children are taught to behave in certain ways, many are gender-specific, and long-lasting. appropriate public education emphasizing special education and related services, not only to meet their unique needs, but to prepare them for further education, .
Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus "the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained".: 5 Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology.
Humans Language Socialization: Encyclopedia of Language and . More recently, however, the concept of socialization has been broadened to include aspects of adult behaviour as well. It is now thought of “as an interactional process whereby a person’s behaviour is modified to conform to expectations held by members of the groups to which he belongs.
Formal education plays a large role in the socialization of students. Starting with the preschool years, children are taught to behave in certain ways, many are gender-specific, and long-lasting.