Product life cycle a kenyan case

If the idea is determined to be feasible and potentially profitable, the product is produced, marketed and rolled out in the growth phase. Assuming the product becomes successful, its production will grow until the product becomes widely available and matures in the mature stage.

Product life cycle a kenyan case

Configuration management Concurrent engineering workflow[ edit ] Concurrent engineering British English: Although this does not necessarily reduce the amount of manpower required for a project, as more changes are required due to the incomplete and changing information, it does drastically reduce lead times and thus time to market.


Feature-based CAD systems have for many years allowed the simultaneous work on 3D solid model and the 2D drawing by means of two separate files, with the drawing looking at the data in the model; when the model changes the drawing will associatively update.

Some CAD packages also allow associative copying of geometry between files. This allows, for example, the copying of a part design into the files used by the tooling designer. The manufacturing engineer can then start work on tools before the final design freeze; when a design changes size or shape the tool geometry will then update.

Concurrent engineering also has the added benefit of providing better and more immediate communication between departments, reducing the chance of costly, late design changes. It adopts a problem prevention Product life cycle a kenyan case as compared to the problem solving and re-designing method of traditional sequential engineering.

Bottom—up design[ edit ] Bottom—up design CAD-centric occurs where the definition of 3D models of a product starts with the construction of individual components. These are then virtually brought together in sub-assemblies of more than one level until the full product is digitally defined.

This is sometimes known as the "review structure" which shows what the product will look like. Bottom—up design tends to focus on the capabilities of available real-world physical technology, implementing those solutions which this technology is most suited to.

When these bottom—up solutions have real-world value, bottom—up design can be much more efficient than top—down design. The risk of bottom—up design is that it very efficiently provides solutions to low-value problems.

The focus of bottom—up design is "what can we most efficiently do with this technology? A top level spec is repeatedly decomposed into lower level structures and specifications, until the physical implementation layer is reached. The risk of a top—down design is that it may not take advantage of more efficient applications of current physical technology, due to excessive layers of lower-level abstraction due to following an abstraction path which does not efficiently fit available components e.

The positive value of top—down design is that it preserves a focus on the optimum solution requirements. A part-centric top—down design may eliminate some of the risks of top—down design. This starts with a layout model, often a simple 2D sketch defining basic sizes and some major defining parameters, which may include some Industrial design elements.

Geometry from this is associatively copied down to the next level, which represents different subsystems of the product.

The geometry in the sub-systems is then used to define more detail in levels below. Depending on the complexity of the product, a number of levels of this assembly are created until the basic definition of components can be identified, such as position and principal dimensions.

This information is then associatively copied to component files. In these files the components are detailed; this is where the classic bottom—up assembly starts.

Product life cycle a kenyan case

The top—down assembly is sometime known as a "control structure". If a single file is used to define the layout and parameters for the review structure it is often known as a skeleton file.

Defense engineering traditionally develops the product structure from the top down. The system engineering process [18] prescribes a functional decomposition of requirements and then physical allocation of product structure to the functions.

This top down approach would normally have lower levels of the product structure developed from CAD data as a bottom—up structure or design.

Both-ends-against-the-middle design[ edit ] Both-ends-against-the-middle BEATM design is a design process that endeavors to combine the best features of top—down design, and bottom—up design into one process.

A BEATM design process flow may begin with an emergent technology which suggests solutions which may have value, or it may begin with a top—down view of an important problem which needs a solution.

In either case the key attribute of BEATM design methodology is to immediately focus at both ends of the design process flow: The BEATM design process proceeds from both ends in search of an optimum merging somewhere between the top—down requirements, and bottom—up efficient implementation.The product manufacturer has the greatest influence on the environmental impact over the product life cycle because it grasps the basic design of the product.

To reduce environmental impact, the product designer, at an early stage, must take into account environmental impact over the life cycle.

Dec 13,  · Product failures and the product life cycle Most products experience some form of the product life cycle where they create that familiar—or a variant—form of the product life cycle based on time and sales volume or revenue.5/5(1). A Case Study Fifteen teams used the WinWin spiral model to prototype, plan, specify, and life-cycle objectives, the life-cycle architecture, and product life-cycle processes.

MODEL APPLICATION We applied the WinWin spiral model in four cycles. Product Life Cycle; a Kenyan case Essay Product Life Cycle Marketing Management D01 April 7, Abstract In marketing, there is a tool that is very useful to marketing strategy development.

This tool is known as the product life cycle. stage of the product life cycle experience entry of new consumers and exit of existing consumers for reasons unrelated to company marketing activities. American values are fundamental factors that shape much of the advertising in the.

Life Cycle Assessments have been done on a huge variety of products and processes, including jet engines, diapers, drinking cups, computers, remediation techniques, and trash disposal. For a typical product, LCA takes into account the supply of raw materials needed to produce the product, the.

Product Life Cycle Stages