Understanding how the brain functions and communicates

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Understanding how the brain functions and communicates

Mopic The vertebrate brain is the large anterior portion of the central nervous system.

Understanding how the brain functions and communicates

The "cranial vault" of the skull encases the brain in most vertebrates. In invertebrates, the enlarged and specialized anterior ganglion of the central nervous system is often referred to as a brain, although not all scientists regard it as a true brain.

The brain receives and processes sensory information, initiates and controls movement, and executes cognitive thought processes. The human brain has an extraordinary capacity, correlated with the great enlargement A colored magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan of the axial section of the human brain showing a metastatic tumor yellow.

Enteric nervous system - Wikipedia

Gross Anatomy The mammalian brain has three primary subdivisions: The brain-stem is further divided into the diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla. The human brain is about 85 percent cerebrum, 11 percent cerebellum, and 4 percent brainstem.

The human brain has more than billion neuronswith 14 to 16 billion in the cerebral cortex and nearly billion in the cerebellum alone. In addition, there are perhaps nine times as many glial cells, whose exact roles are unclear, but which help to support and maintain neurons.

Most neurons are present shortly after birth, and as the brain continues to grow, the number and complexity of neuronal connections increases. These neurons are arranged into gray matter and white matter.

Understanding how the brain functions and communicates

Gray matter composes areas rich in neurons, their dendrites, and synapses. White matter is tissue rich in axons nerve fibersbut with a few cell bodies or dendrites.

It gets its color from an insulating wrap called myelin around the nerve fibers. The high lipid content of white matter makes it light and easily distinguished from gray matter in fresh, unstained tissue.

The cerebrum and cerebellum each have a multilayered sheet of cells on the surface called the cortex, composed of gray matter.

The white matter lies deep to this and consists of axons that send information to and from the cortex or connect different regions of the cortex to each other.

Brain Anatomy, Anatomy of the Human Brain

Deeper masses of gray matter are also found embedded in the white matter. The central nervous system brain and spinal cord develops as a hollow tube whose internal space eventually forms a system of fluid-filled cavities called ventricles.

The first two ventricles are a pair of C-shaped lateral ventricles, one in each cerebral hemisphere. Each of these communicates through a small pore with a slitlike third ventricle between the two hemispheres, surrounded by the diencephalon.

From here, a slender canal, the cerebral aqueduct, passes down the middle of the midbrain and leads to a triangular fourth ventricle, between the cerebellum and the brainstem. Pores from the fourth ventricle open into a subarachnoid space that surrounds the brain. These ventricles are filled with a liquid, the cerebrospinal fluid CSFwhich also bathes the outside of the brain and cushions the organ in the cranial cavity.

The CSF is secreted in part by a complex of blood vessels, the choroid plexus, in each ventricle. Around the brain and spinal cord, between the nervous tissue and bone, are found three membranes called meninges: The brain receives most of its input from, and sends most of it output to, the spinal cord, which merges with the brainstem at the base of the brain.

The twelve cranial nerves provide input and output pathways to and from the structures in the head. The Cerebrum The cerebrum, the largest subdivision of the human brain, consists of a pair of cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere consists of an outer mantle of gray matter the cerebral cortexan extensive underlying of white matter, and deep aggregations of gray matter, the basal nuclei, or ganglia.

Each hemisphere develops from a lateral outgrowth of the embryonic forebrain. Near its attachment to the forebrain, immature neurons aggregate to form the basal nuclei.

As the basal nuclei grow, the remainder of the hemisphere continues to balloon outward and posteriorly, forming the cerebral cortex. This outgrowth is hollow, and its cavity becomes the lateral ventricle. In adults, the right and left hemispheres are separated from each other by a deep midline cleft, the longitudinal fissure, and are separated from the cerebellum by a deep horizontal groove, the transverse fissure.

The hemispheres are connected to each other by a massive bundle of nerve fibers, the corpus callosum, on the floor of the longitudinal fissure.

Many of these fibers connect regions of one hemisphere to corresponding points in the opposite hemisphere. As the cortex continues to grow, it is thrown into folds called gyri singular, gyrusseparated by shallow grooves called sulci singular, sulcus. A few especially prominent sulci appear early in development and are consistent from brain to brain.

They serve as landmarks to divide the cortex into areas called lobes. Gyri are not as numerous or pronounced in most other mammals. The frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes are visible on the surface of the brain.A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system.

Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is . Frequently in my early teaching career, I taught a computer literacy course. In this course I taught my student that a computer is a machine for the input, storage, processing, and output of information.

The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain that functions to make human beings unique. Distinctly human traits including higher thought, language, and human consciousness as well as the ability to think, reason and imagine all originate in the cerebral cortex.

The Brain Injury Recovery Network has developed this site in an attempt to provide practical, actionable advice for brain injury survivors and families. "Larry Swanson, one of the great contemporary students of brain anatomy, has given us a broad overview of the structure and function of the brain using insights from embryology and from evolutionary comparison to highlight the principles that govern the anatomical substrates of behavior.

The vertebrate brain is the large anterior portion of the central nervous barnweddingvt.com "cranial vault" of the skull encases the brain in most vertebrates.

In invertebrates, the enlarged and specialized anterior ganglion of the central nervous system is often referred to as a brain, although not all scientists regard it as a true brain.

Human Brain Neuroscience Cognitive Science